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    Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol.

    The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread, and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids. Fermentation is also used in preservation techniques to create lactic acid in sour foods such as dry sausages, khimchi and yoghurt, or vinegar (acetic acid) for use in pickling foods.

    Food fermentation has been said to serve five main purposes:-

    • Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates
    • Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations
    • Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins
    • Elimination of anti-nutrients
    • A decrease in cooking time and fuel requirement