• Walnut

    Juglans is a plant genus, containing species known as Walnuts, which is placed in the Juglandaceae family. They are deciduous trees, 10–40 meters tall (about 30–130 ft), with pinnate leaves 200–900 millimetres long (7–35 in), with 5–25 leaflets; the shoots have chambered pith, a character shared with the wingnuts (Pterocarya), but not the hickories (Carya) in the same family. The 21 species in the genus range across the north temperate Old World from southeast Europe east to Japan, and more widely in the New World from southeast Canada west to California and south to Argentina. Scientific evidence shows that incorporating walnuts in a healthy diet reduces the risk of heart disease by improving blood vessel elasticity and plaque accumulation. Walnuts have also been shown to aid in the lowering LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol) and the C-Reactive Protein (CRP). CRP was recently recognized as an independent marker and predictor of heart disease.

  • Waterchestnut

    The Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis; synonyms E. equisetina, E. indica, E. plantaginea, E. plantaginoides, E. tuberosa, E. tumida), more often called simply the water chestnut, is a grass-like sedge grown for its edible corms. The water chestnut is actually not a nut at all, but an aquatic vegetable that grows in marshes, underwater in the mud. It has tube-shaped, leafless green stems that grow to about 1.5 metres. The water caltrop, which is also referred to by the same name, is unrelated and often confused with the water chestnut. The small, rounded corms have a crispy white flesh and can be eaten raw, slightly boiled, grilled, pickled, or tinned. They are a popular ingredient in Chinese dishes. In China, they are most often eaten raw, sometimes sweetened. They can also be ground into a flour form used for making water chestnut cake, which is common as part of dim sum cuisine. They are unusual among vegetables for remaining crisp even after being cooked or canned, because their cell walls are cross-linked and strengthened by certain phenolic compounds. This property is shared by other vegetables that remain crisp in this manner, including the tiger nut and lotus root. The corms are rich in carbohydrates (about 90 percent by dry weight), especially starch (about 60 percent by dry weight), and are also a good source of dietary fiber, riboflavin, vitamin B6, potassium, copper, and manganese. If eaten uncooked, the surface of the plants can transmit Fasciolopsiasis.

  • Watermelon

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), family Cucurbitaceae) can be both the fruit and the plant of a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) plant originally from southern Africa, and is one of the most common types of melon. This flowering plant produces a special type of fruit known by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy center (mesocarp and endocarp); pepos are derived from an inferior ovary, and are characteristic of the Cucurbitaceae. The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon (although not in the genus Cucumis), has a smooth exterior rind (green, yellow and sometimes white) and a juicy, sweet interior flesh (usually pink, but sometimes orange, yellow, red and sometimes green if not ripe). It is also commonly used to make a variety of salads, most notably fruit salad. A watermelon contains about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight.[7] As with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C. The amino acid citrulline was first extracted from watermelon and analysed.[8] Watermelons contain a significant amount of citrulline and after consumption of several kg, an elevated concentration is measured in the blood plasma; this could be mistaken for citrullinaemia or other urea cycle disorders. Watermelon rinds, usually a light green or white color, are also edible and contains many hidden nutrients that most people avoid eating due to its unappealing flavor. They are sometimes used as a vegetable.In China, they are stir-fried, stewed or more often pickled. When stir-fried, the de-skinned and de-fruited rind is cooked with olive oil, garlic, chili peppers, scallions, sugar and rum. Pickled watermelon rind is also commonly consumed in the Southern US.Watermelon juice can also be made into wine. Watermelon is also mildly diuretic and contains large amounts of beta carotene.Watermelon with red flesh is a significant source of lycopene

  • Wheat

    Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (784 million tons) and rice (651 million tons). Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a higher protein content than either maize (corn) or rice, the other major cereals. In terms of total production tonnages used for food, it is currently second to rice as the main human food crop, and ahead of maize, after allowing for maize's more extensive use in animal feeds.

  • White Butter

    White butter is a diary product, essentially the fat of cream separated from other milk constituents by churning or some form of agitation. Butter can be made from either sweet/ sour cream. Butter made from the latter has a more pronounced flavor. It's made from pure cream and churned until most of the water content is separated. Making butter is a fairly easy process. Take a jar and fill it with milk. Then either by hand or with a whisk, beat the milk till the cream becomes slightly yellow in colour and then little blobs of butter appear along with buttermilk. Drain this liquid away using a muslin cloth. This is important as the presence of buttermilk in butter can make it go rancid. Chill for sometime in the refrigerator and then add some chilled water. Whisk gently and drain out the chilled water. Press the butter till all the water has drained out. White butter is ready fore use. You may add salt or use unsalted. Shape and refrigerate till use. · Use white butter as a base to make clarified butter ie ghee. Heat the white butter till it boils. Remove the scum or the particles that float on top and till it is clear and amber in colour. It has a higher keeping quality, is a good and common cooking medium used widely in Indian cuisine. · Use white butter as an accompaniment to aloo parathas, mooli parathas or any stuffed paratha of your choice. White butter is a pre dominantly used ingredient in Punjabi food. · White butter is a good base fat ingredient to use in certain farsan snacks like chakli etc where the frozen white butter is combined with the flour. · It can be used as a basic ingredient in bakery where it is used in pastry making and cake making. Butter goes perfectly with sugar and is a star in the dessert kitchen. It adds lots of flavor, making tasty cookies, crisp pie shells, and light, flaky puff pastry. However, keep in mind that cold, grated butter is more easily incorporated in pastry dough. · Melted white butter, applied with a brush to moulds, tins etc helps prevent food from sticking. Butter is a very rich, natural food with a high energy value (750 calories per 100gms). · It supplies our bodies with vitamins and minerals- it is a saturated fat containing calcium, phosphorous and Vitamins A and D. Thus it helps boost our immune system, supports our bones and other organs, most importantly, our brain. · Butter is a good source of the vital mineral selenium. · Natural butter contains conjugated linoleic acid or CLA, which is a compound substance and essential fatty acid necessary for optimal health, is a potent anti-cancer agent, muscle builder, and immunity booster. · Butter contains lecithin, a substance that assists in assimilation and metabolism of cholestrol and other fat constituents. · Good natural butter is satisfying and can even help with maintaining a healthy weight. For a healthy diet, recommended intake is 15-30 gms per day

  • White radishes

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe, in pre-Roman times. They are grown and consumed throughout the world. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time. There are some radishes that are grown for their seeds; oilseed radishes are grown, as the name implies, for oil production.The most commonly eaten portion is the napiform taproot, although the entire plant is edible and the tops can be used as a leaf vegetable. The bulb of the radish is usually eaten raw, although tougher specimens can be steamed. The raw flesh has a crisp texture and a pungent, peppery flavor, caused by glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase which combine when chewed to form allyl isothiocyanates, also present in mustard, horseradish, and wasabi. Radishes are used in salads, as well as in many European dishes.

  • White vinegar

    Vinegar is an acidic liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. pH of table vinegar ranges from 2.4 to 3.4 (higher if diluted). The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4% to 8% by volume for table vinegar and up to 18% for pickling. Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other cuisines. The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French word "vinaigre" meaning "sour wine". Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, particularly in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used while making chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar. Condiment for beetroot — cold, cooked beetroot is commonly eaten with vinegar Condiment for fish and chips — People commonly use malt vinegar (or non-brewed condiment) on chips. Flavoring for potato chips — many American, Canadian and British manufacturers of packaged potato chips and crisps feature a variety flavored with vinegar and salt. Vinegar pie — a North American dessert made with a vinegar to one's taste and similar to chess pie.[citation needed] Pickling — any vinegar can be used to pickle foods. Cider vinegar and sauces — cider vinegar usually is not suitable for use in delicate sauces. *Apple cider vinegar - Usually placed on the table in small bowls or cups so that people can dip their crab meat into it. Also mixed with water and used to steam crabs. Substitute for fresh lemon juice — cider vinegar can usually be substituted for fresh lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect although it lacks the vitamin C. Saucing roast lamb — pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a sauce. Sweetened vinegar is used in the dish of pork knuckles and ginger stew which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child. Sushi rice — Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice. Red vinegar — Sometimes used in Chinese soups Flavoring — used in the Southern U.S. to flavor collard greens, green beans, black-eyed peas, or cabbage to taste. Commonly put into mint sauce, for general palate preference. Vinegar — especially the coconut, cane, or palm variety — is one of the principal ingredients of Philippine. White vinegar can be used as flavoring in ham and bean

  • Whole wheat flour

    Whole wheat flour is a powdery substance derived by grinding or mashing the wheat's whole grain. It is used in baking but typically added to other "white" flours to provide nutrients (especially fiber and protein), texture, and body to the finished product. Whole wheat flour is more nutritious than refined white flour, although in a process called food fortification, some micronutrients are added back to the white flour (required by law in some jurisdictions). Fortified white wheat flour does not, however, contain the macronutrients of the wheat's bran and germ (especially fiber and protein). Whole wheat is a good source of calcium, iron, fiber, and other minerals like selenium.

  • Yam

    Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae). These are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania. There are many cultivars of yam. The vegetable has a rough skin which is difficult to peel, but which softens after heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink. The majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from white or yellow to purple or pink in ripe yams. In central parts of India, the yam is prepared by being finely sliced, seasoned with spices and deep fried. In southern parts of India, the vegetable is a popular accompaniment to fish curry. In Assam, it is known as Kosu and is normally boiled, mashed and lightly seasoned with salt. Yam provides around 110 calories per 100 grams of product. Yam is high in vitamins C and B6, potassium, manganese and dietary fiber while being low in saturated fat and sodium. A product that is high in potassium and low in sodium is likely to produce a good potassium-sodium balance in the human body, and so protects against osteoporosis and heart disease. Yam products generally have a lower glycemic index than potato products, which means that they will provide a more sustained form of energy, and give better protection against obesity and diabetes. It is also known to replenish fast-twitch fibers and West Indians use it as a way of recovering after sprinting.