Preparation Method

  • Clarify

    The process of removing impurities from a liquid such as melted butter, meat stock, or vegetable stock. This is usually accomplished by skimming the surface of the liquid as it is heated.

  • Creaming

    Creamed food, in cooking, is food that is prepared by slow simmering or poaching in milk or cream. Some typical creamed dishes include creamed corn and creamed chipped beef on toast. A similar technique used for soups involves adding milk or cream to the soup, either as part of the base stock, or as a finish. Some typical "cream of" soups are cream of tomato soup and cream of mushroom soup. Some commercial preparations of "creamed" food substitute water and a starch (often corn starch) for all or some of the milk. This produces a "creamy" texture with no actual cream or milk used. Pureeing the ingredients of a soup or stew can also produce a creamy texture, but these dishes are more properly called "puree"s. Creamed should not be confused with the baking technique, in which sugar and fat are combined.

  • Dicing

    Dicing is a culinary knife cut in which the food item is cut into small blocks or dice. This may be done for aesthetic reasons or to create uniformly sized pieces to ensure even cooking. Dicing is a desirable method of food preparation, due to the small nature of the pieces of food, which allows the spread of flavour and texture throughout the dish, as well as a somewhat faster cooking speed. Cutting into even sized cubes is also called dicing.

  • Dressing

    Any condiment or herb or a combination of spices in a medium (cream, vinegar, oil, etc.) which is used for adding in the end (prior to consumption) for enhancing taste and flavour.

  • Emulsification

    To emulsify means to bind two things together that don't naturally bind, like oil and vinegar. In order to make the combination work, you need an emulsifier, a bridge substance. Common emulsifiers include eggs (to bind oil and lemon juice for mayonnaise) and mustard (for vinaigrette). To emulsify, you'll need a whisk, blender or food processor. When a recipe doesn't call for an emulsifier to bind, say, a vinaigrette, whisk the oil and vinegar into a temporary emulsion just before serving.

  • Fermentation

    Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol.

    The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread, and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids. Fermentation is also used in preservation techniques to create lactic acid in sour foods such as dry sausages, khimchi and yoghurt, or vinegar (acetic acid) for use in pickling foods.

    Food fermentation has been said to serve five main purposes:-

    • Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates
    • Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations
    • Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins
    • Elimination of anti-nutrients
    • A decrease in cooking time and fuel requirement

  • Frying

    This is a method of cooking whereby the food to be cooked is brought into contact with hot fat / oil. There are two types of frying: a) Shallow frying - Food is cooked in pan with little fat / oil so that only bottom and side surfaces of the food are immersed, hence this method ensures excellent colour and crispness to the fried product. For e.g Patties, cutlets, etc. b) Deep frying - The food is completely immersed in hot fat/oil and cooked. In most cases , deep frying ensures cooking with colouring of exteriors. Deep frying is done at a temperature of 150-180C/300-350F. For e.g Gulab jamun, vada etc.

  • Grating

    The process of chopping food into fine pieces. The Kitchen utensil used for grating is called as Grater or shredder. Several types of graters boast different sizes of grating slots, and can therefore aid in the preparation of a variety of foods. They are commonly used to grate cheese and lemon or orange peel (to create zest), and can also be used to grate other soft foods. They are commonly used in the preparation of toasted cheese, Welsh rarebit, and macaroni and cheese. In Slavic cuisine, graters are commonly used to grate potatoes. In tropical nations, graters are also used to grate coconut meat.

  • Grilling

    This is cooking by dry heat. The food is supported on a grid iron over fire or betweeen electric heated grill bars.

  • Grind

    Crushing a food item to a powder or paste form in a mixer or grinder or pulveriser or grinding stone or mortar-pestle etc.